The Rajasthan Story Of Caste Politics.

What is happening in Rajasthan is pretty shameful but not unexpected. The Gurjars have come out on the streets and their demand is that their OBC status be changed to ST. The protests have turned violent and as usual loss of life and public property follows. This includes pelting stone, burning police stations, road blocs and what not.

While the Gurjars are protesting to be included in the ST category, The Meena community is protesting against it. They have vowed to not let this inclusion happen as they are the only community classified as ST in Rajasthan.

What do you make of all this?

In my view this is happening for two reasons. One is Caste based identity Politics and the other is Quota Reservations. Because of Caste politics people vote en bloc as a community and they benefit as a bloc. This is what happened when jats in Rajasthan were granted OBC status. Since they are powerful and well off they kind of cornered the benefit of reservations. The gurjars, that has an OBC status was later promised ST status by BJP. The community voted and BJP came to power. The Gurjars now want the promise fulfilled. Apart from reservations the gurjars have another reason to protest. They have had very less political representation throughout Rajasthan except Dausa. Dausa is perhaps the only place where they have any political clout. When they learnt that Dausa was being converted into a reserved seat their patience ran out with BJP and they have come on the streets. Now if Gurjars get included as ST then the other ST community Meena suffers because someone else will come to share the ST reservation pie. Hence they protest to maintain their exclusive benefits. All of this is ridiculous but not unexpected. Looks like group assertion in India has become the only way to achieve any kind of benefit. This is a sad situation but is Muscle power of the community the only way to get social justice?

These events also bring out a big short coming of the entire social justice programme based on reservations. Many have been arguing all along the futility of implementing such huge programmes without solid data backing them. With incidents like these one can not help but doubt the fairness of the reservation system. The entire ad hoc classification process of communities as OBCs has to stop. The government needs to collect data and clearly define criteria based on which a community can be given a particuar status. It should also tackle the issue of creamy layer otherwise what is happening between different communities will get repeated within the same communities. Thereafter will come the quotas within quotas and so on.

Pratab Bhanu Mehta has an excellent take on the whole issue.

I personally feel it is time to revamp the whole reservation system with something new.

related reading in the blogosphere

Reality Check

Retributions

May 31, 2007 · Ajit · 19 Comments
Posted in: Caste, Dausa, Quota Reservations, Reservations

19 Responses

  1. The Great Indian Mutiny » The Archive » The Rajasthan Story Of Caste Politics. - May 31, 2007

    [...] cross-posted [...]

  2. Thiagan - June 2, 2007

    02/06/07

    This is the ugly side of secularism, promoted by the Congress and enlarged by the latter day secularists like Mulayam, Lallu etc. They divided the Hindu society by caste, inflammed it with political rhetoric and mixed it with incendiary Islamic theology and reservations. The society has gone to dogs.

  3. Sarika Seth - July 11, 2007

    Hi
    Pune360.com is looking for articles from Puneites and also Pune pics.
    Let me know if you have anything.
    Any feedback on Pune360 will be fantastic.
    Regs
    Sarika.

  4. Polite Indian | Tolerant India or Violent India? - August 20, 2007

    [...] Gujjar Meena Clash in Rajasthan [...]

  5. The Great Indian Mutiny » Tolerant India or Violent India? - August 20, 2007

    [...] Gujjar Meena Clash in Rajasthan [...]

  6. satyendra singh - February 6, 2008

    WHY GURJARS OF RAJASTHAN SO MUCH AGITATED…….. !!!

    The Gujars are originally nomadic shepherds and have been described as nomadic pastoral tribe by the social historians as well as anthropologists. They were spread across the dry tracts of western India from Kashmir to Gujrat. When India was sparsely populated, Gujars used to take their animals up to the Himalayan foothills in summer and descend back into the plains of north western states in winter. Subsequently when settled population grew and grazing grounds shrunk, most of them were forced to take to more sedentary life. Secondly when various Muslim groups began invading India in the 11th century and political scenario changed, some of Gujars converted to Islam. When this happened, their resentful Hindu neighbors and feudatories began to rise up and took control of the area. The Gujars were forced to leave the region in search for good pasture elsewhere. Their wandering took them to Himalayan states of Jammu ” Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal where they are still living as seasonal nomads. These Gujars who were converted to Islam and are distributed in the foothills of the Himalayas, ranging from Kashmir to the hills of Himachal and Uttaranchal and who had migrated from the plains of North-western India due to various reasons are strict vegetarians, are monogamous, lineage exogamous and patriarchal society and their women do not veil themselves. They speak in Gujari or Gojri and have same clan or ‘gotra’ as those of Gujars of plains.
    As per Linguistic survey of India conducted by Dr George Grierson (1916), Gojri is a dialect of Rajasthani and is closer to Mewati and shows resemblance to Mewari. The linguistic survey of India conducted by Grierson has been the basis for the classification of Gojri as a dialect of Rajasthani in the old census reports. This makes one believe that at some point of time these people must have been in contact with the Rajasthani speakers. The Gojri speakers, along with many more ethnic Gujars of the plains who no longer speak Gojri, are the descendants of the ancient Gujars. Now a days Gojri speaking Gujars include nomadic pastoralists who herd sheep and goats or dairy buffalo as well as settled and semi settled agriculturists.
    These socio-economic, occupational and cultural characteristics strengthen the view that all Gujars belong to a common ethnic group. As per the recent interpretation based on study of copper and stone inscriptions, literature of foreign travelers, Gujars were indigenous or original inhabitants of North- Western India who used to roam with their flocks of sheep, goats and cattle in search of green pastures on high altitudes.
    In the 7th chapter ‘Image of the Barbarian’ of her book titled “Ancient Indian Social History-Some Interpretations” renowned historian Romila Thaper mentions that the term ‘mleccha’ was being used in ancient India (before invasion by Muslims) to describe the barbarian or indigenous inhabitants of northern India at the time of the arrival of the Aryan –speaking people. It is pertinent to mention here that since Gujars were traditional herdsman whose traditional occupation was animal husbandry; they cannot be classified as vaisya (trader) or sudras (cultivator). Their occupation i.e. cattle rearing is also considered as polluting .An essential difference between the Arya and the mleccha was that the latter did not confirm to the law of varna.The mleccha did not follow the dharma of the sastras .The mleccha appear to have had their own customary laws and functioned within the framework of these. In view of the above discussion the Gujars may only be described as mleccha i.e. a barbarian pastoral tribe of indigenous origin who were not generally included into the traditional Hindu caste hierarchy or ‘varna vyavastha’.
    Subsequently the mleccha acquired political power and a new concept was necessary. The attitude towards these indigenous tribes was beginning to change and this is reflected partially in the genesis myths associated with their origin. A ninth-century inscription mentions the mleccha along the Chambal river valley. This valley has remained through out Indian history the main route from the Ganges valley to northwestern Deccan and a major centre of dacoity to this day. Perhaps the plundering of caravans was too lucrative for the area to develop any other substantial economy. (The Gujar community largely inhabits the Chambal valley and its adjoining areas in Rajasthan and even today most of the dacoits of the region belong to the Gujar community).
    From the 9th century A.D. political power moved more recognizably into the hands of the erstwhile feudatories and the recipients of land grants. The new feudatories in turn became independent kings, granted land and revenue in lieu of salaries to learned Brahmans for the acquisition of religious merit. The return on the part of the Brahman may have been the fabrication of a genealogy for the new ruler. The legal sanction of the grant was generally recorded in an inscription in stone or on plates of copper, and the preamble to the grant contained the genealogy of the kings. The remarkable fact of these genealogies is that most kings claim full ksatriya status on the basis of a genealogical connection with the ancient royal families, the Suryavamsa (Solar lineage) and the Chandravamsa (Lunar lineage). What is even more significant is that most of these families are found on examination to be at least partially if not wholly of non-Aryan origin. Thus instead of being described as mleccha kings, they claim ksatriya status and have had genealogies fabricated to prove the claim. Romila Thaper emphasizes that the kings of this period, some of whom coming from mleccha stock such as the Gonds and Gujars, were willingly accorded ksatriya status. Accordingly it goes without saying that initially Gujars were a nomadic pastoral tribe belonging to mleccha stock and thus they were outside the varna system of civilized Hindu society.
    The advantage of the fabricated genealogy was that mleccha antecedents were soon overlooked or forgotten, particularly in those areas where the mleccha had become more powerful. In a 9th century inscription of a Calukya feudatory of the Pratihar king great pride is taken in ‘freeing the earth from the Huna people’. The Pratihar’s claim to descent from Laksmana, the younger brother of Rama who acted as a doorkeeper (pratihar) is very suspicious or in other words fabricated. Marriage alliances and the process of Sanskritization broke the kinship barrier and mleccha rulers became patrons of Sanskrit learning and culture, so that they were as good as aryas for all practical purposes.
    Simultaneously since Gujars’ resistance was most determined, localized, and sharper to the invaders i.e. Sultanate and Mugal Empire; they were subjected to greater repression. The Gujars who fought the invaders had to take refuge in inaccessible forests and mountains; they had to flee to ravines like those of Chambal. This cruel cycle of resistance, flight to forests, the subhuman existence there, forays to harass and beat back the conquerors, flight back into the forests – lasted a thousand years.
    Again Gujars participated at large in agrarian revolts in the 17th and early 18th centuries in the areas of Braj, Mewat, Ajmer and Ranthambhor. Entire villages refused to pay land revenue, plundered highways and looted traders. Gujars also took part in the mutiny of 1857 against the British Raj and as a result they were labeled as “Criminal Tribes”. They were dispossessed, exploited and marginalized.
    In support of the above contention, renowned historian Dr. K.S.Lal in his important work, “Growth of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in Medieval India”, Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, 1995 has noted that: “…thereafter and right to the end of Islamic rule, far from welcoming Islamic conquerors as liberators, the ‘lower castes’ and ‘Tribes’- Meo, Bachgoti, Baghela, Barwaris, Gonds, Gujars, Bhils, Satnamis, Oraons, Mina, Kunbis, “Shudras”- are the ones that put up the most determined resistance to the invaders.”
    As a result of it the history of Gujars has been one of migration, nomadic pastoralism, semi sedentarization (semi settled agriculturist), exploitation, displacement and dispossession and marginalization. The reasons of their present day condition may also be attributed to this background to a certain extent.
    Gujars were also represented as notorious highway robbers involved in loot and plunder by the contemporary historians. Their habitat viz difficult terrain, dense forests, hilly areas and ravines of rivers provided them easy route to escape. The chief reason behind these constant raids and plunder were their ‘non-pastoral requirements’ (food grains, cloth etc.).
    As per Imperial Gazetteer of India-Provincial series-Rajputana vol. 11, page 325; vol.21, page 114, vol 17 page 314, “the Gujars are mostly cattle breeders and dealers….they were formerly noted cattle lifters but now give little trouble….As recently as 1897 the Gujars were notorious for their raids into Gwalior and Karauli……in the mutiny they (Meo) and the Gujars were conspicuous for their readiness to take advantage of disorder in Mewat.”
    In the book titled “JATS ” GUJARS”, published in 1899, British writer A.H.Bingley throws some light on the Gujars of North-Western India and provides some valuable information in the following paragraphs:
    “The name Gujar is locally derived from ‘Gao-char’ or ‘cow-grazer’. They are addicted to cattle lifting and bear a bad character for turbulence. The Gujars are the keepers of flocks and herds of cattle, apart from being cultivators. They are of unsettled habits and their favourite haunts are in the jungles of the khadirs of the Jamuna, Hindun and Ganges, where the rough uncultivated affords them good pasturage for their cattle.” On page 43-44 the book particularly focuses on Gujars of Rajputana: “……Gujars of Rajputana form a numerically large tribe…they are chiefly cattle dealers and breeders……in appearance very similar to Jats…although rather inferior to them in the social scale….the Gujars are intellectually very thick headed and it is very difficult to find among them men of sufficient education, social standing and influence.” “…..these come from the Eastern Rajputana States of Bharatpur, Karauli and Dholpur, the majority being found in a large hilly tract called the ‘Daang’ ……are chiefly employed as herdsmen……..make and sell ghee in bulk……..the inhabitants of these parts are of rather a turbulent and quarrelsome nature. The institution of polyandry and polygamy were very common sometimes back but now with the passage of time it is losing ground. ”
    W.Crooke, in his book ‘The Tribes “Castes of N.W.Provinces and Oudh’, 1896, Vol 2 notes: “they have been noted for their turbulence and habit of cattle stealing. Babar in his Memoirs describes how the commander of the rear guard captured a few Gujar ruffians who followed the camp decapitated them and sent their heads to the Emperor. Dowson says that the Gujars of Pali and Pahal became exceedingly andacious while Shershah was fortifying Delhi, so he marched to the Hills and expelled them so that “not a vestige of their habitations was left.” Jahangir remarks that the Gujars live chiefly on milk and curds, and in his autobiography ‘Tuzak-i-Babari’, Babur writes: “Every time that I have entered Hindustan, the Gujars have regularly poured down in prodigious numbers from their hills and wild, in order to carry off oxen and buffalo. These were the wretches that really inflicted the chief hardships, and were guilty of the severest oppression in the country. These districts in former times, had been in a state of revolt, and yielded very little revenue that could be come out. On the present occasion when I had reduced the whole of the neighboring districts to subjections they began to repeat the practices.” In the freedom struggle of 1857, the Gujars played a prominent part making numerous assaults and seriously impeding the operations of the British Army before Delhi.”
    In her book titled “Against History, Against State”, Dr Shail Mayaram, Senior Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, New Delhi has categorically cited that: “Gujars and Meos from villages in Alwar and the neighbouring British provinces are said to have given trouble “by their rebellions and predatory habits”. (…) A special British force had to be placed on the Khairagarh border to guard against their incursions and those of the Bharatpur Gujars. (….) Her territory was overrun with our mutinous soldiery; the infection spread to her own troops and her Gujar and Mewatie population were not slow to follow the example of their brethren in our rebellious provinces.”*The role of kinship was significant in spreading the revolt.” (*Source: General Lawrence and Lieutenant Newal, Narrative of Mutiny in Rajputana, 1858-59, RA, 34 Mutiny, 1858-59, 19.) “……Watson and Kaye sum up the administrative perspective when they remark that “in the Mutiny and rebellions in some districts especially around Agra they (Meos) were more trouble-some than the Gujars……”* (*Watson and Kaye, “Mewatees”in the People of India, vol. 4, entry 202)
    Further in various reports on the Census of British India from 1881 to 1901 following introductory remarks have been given about Gujars by different British Scholars:
    “…the Gujars a cattle –lifting race of northern India, now fast becoming as good at agriculture as they were and still are ready as raiders…..throughout the Salt range tract, and probably under the eastern hills also, they are the oldest inhabitants among the tribes now settled there…true Gujar herdsmen are found in great numbers…here they are a purely pastoral and almost nomad race….and it may be said that the Gujar is a cultivator only in the plains. Even there he is a bad cultivator, and more given to keeping cattle than to following the plough…..but he is far inferior in both personal character and repute to the Jat. He is lazy to a degree, and a wretched cultivator; his women, though not secluded, will not do field-work save of the lightest kind; while his fondness for cattle extends to those of other people…..the Gujars have been turbulent throughout the history of the Punjab, they were a constant thorn in the side of the Delhi emperors, and are still ever ready to take advantage of any loosening of the bonds of discipline to attach and plunder their neighbors…Mr Brandreth describes them as “unwilling cultivators, and greatly addicted to thieving,” and gives instances of their criminal propensities. Thus it would appear that the further the Gujar moves from his native hills the more he deteriorates and the more unpleasant he makes himself to his neighbors. (Source: W.Chichele Plowden, (1883), Report on the Census of British India taken on the 17th February 1881, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p.282).
    “…..The Gujar is another northern tribe….it is composed of varied elements. In the Punjab it is mainly agricultural, though it tends towards cattle grazing in the southern plains. Elsewhere in India the title generally implies the latter occupation….” (Source: Jervoise Athelstane Baines, (1893), General report on the Census of India, 1891, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, p.191).
    Professor M.K.Bhasin, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, in his detailed study ‘Genetics of Castes and Tribes of India’ mentions that traditionally, each cast was associated with hereditary occupation and had a limited monopoly over it. Further it is not true to say that every member of the caste practiced the associated occupation exclusively. However, generally speaking most practiced agriculture along with their traditional occupation. In its support he refer occupational statistics for 84 selected castes from Census of India,1931 which showed that only 45% of their members were following the traditional occupation .Accordingly Professor Bhasin places Gujars below Jats in social order because according to him the traditional occupation of Jats of North India, is agriculture whereas the traditional and primary occupation of Gujars is animal husbandry.
    As per racial classification of Indian tribes, Gujars have been grouped under the category of Caucasoid along with other pastoral and cattle breeder type communities such as Toda, Rebari, and Bakarwal etc. The tribes in India are derived from four racial groups (Singh, 1994:4):

    The Negrito the great Andamanese,the Onges and the Jarawas
    Proto-Austroloid the Munda,the Oreaon and Gond
    Mongoloid the tribes of North-East
    Caucasoid the Toda,the Rabari and Gujar

    (Source: A research study report on migrant tribal woman, Submitted to Planning Commission, Government of India)
    It is relevant to mention here that at an International workshop on Animal and Plant Genetic Resources in Agriculture at the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin, Germany on 16-18 May 2000, in a presentation ‘Indegenous Institutions For Managing Livestock Genetic Diversity in Rajasthan’ by Hanwant Singh Rathore (Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan) ” League for Pastoral Peoples, the Gujars have been described as a community which is specialized pastoralists.
    As per Ravindra Kaur, Associate professor, department of humanities and social sciences,IIT Delhi ,in the early 20th century, the Gujars of plain area together with backward castes such as Yadavs , attempted upward mobility by claiming Kshatriya status. She places Gujars lower in the social hierarchy than Jats and Yadavs.
    According to Dr. Shail Mayaram, Professor and Senior Fellow, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), the Gujars were treated as ‘shudra’ group in the Mugal period and subjected to a differential system of revenue assessment by the much –expanded Jaipur kingdom. In eastern Rajasthan, Brahmins paid 12 %, Rajputs 33% and raiyati groups such as Gujars, Meenas and others up to 76% of the produce.

    It is relevant to add here that as per genetic study and anthropometric measurements conducted by Dr.R.S.Balgir, Deputy Director “Head, Division of Human Genetics, Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa on Hindu and Muslim Gujars of North-Western India, they have common ethnic origin but they have developed biological and regional diversity also .The magnitude of intra group diversity varies depending upon the physical distance between the two groups. According to Dr.Balgir the plausible explanation for their diversity is geographical dispersal in diverse habitats, the inflow of genes from Islamic invaders as well as non Islamic surrounding population, the inbreeding effect, founder effect, genetic drift, breeding isolation and not to secular trends. The computed genetic distance matrix shows diversity of Ahirs with the Gujars.This shows that Gujars are different from other communities such as Yadavs or Ahirs.

    When the mutiny broke out in 1857 against British Raj, Gujars were amongst the most energetic rebels(refer/source: Imperial Gazeteer of India); as a result, they had their share of hangings and dispossession, and earned their place in the 1871 list of criminal tribes along with 198 castes viz. Pardhis, Sansi,Bawarias,Kanjars and Chokidar –Meena etc. Most of these communities were nomadic or semi nomadic. Subsequently they were “denotified” in 1952, five years after independence. But somehow whereas all the divisions of Mina community were included in Scheduled Tribe category in 1955, Gujars were not given ANY STATUS……..!
    Ravindra Kaur, associate professor, department of humanities and social Sciences,I I T Delhi categorically defends: if Mina can be classified as a tribe, there is no logical reason why the Gujars, who can lay claim to be semi nomadic and pastoral community, should not .
    As per the book titled ‘The Scheduled Tribes’ People of India, National Series-Vol iii, Anthropological Survey of India, the Gujars of Jammu ” Kashmir are divided into two sections on the basis of their occupation –the Jamindar and Dodhi.The primary occupation of the Jamindar Gujar is agriculture supported by animal husbandry. The Dodhi Gujar practice pastoral nomadism. Both the groups were given Scheduled Tribe status in 1991.Similarly in Himachal Pradesh, Gujars of all the districts have been given ST status. In Uttarakhand Gujars are found in the Rajaji National park who are semi nomadic and rear buffalos for their livelihood. The Uttar Pradesh Government has already recommended ST status to the (van)Gujars of Rajaji National Park way back in 1994. The term ‘Van Gujar’ has been created artificially by some scholars. Accordingly the so called Van Gujars of Rajaji National Park are similar to the Gujars of Rajasthan settled in and around National Parks of Sariska(Alwar) and Ranthambor(Sawai- madhopur) and who are proposed to be displaced or “rehabilitated” from the tiger reserve to save the tigers.
    It is thus an accident and mockery of history that Minas a comparatively prosperous and landlord agriculturists community of Rajasthan (who share most of the social, physical and geographical characters with Gujars) are a scheduled tribe for more then 50 years and Gujars are not. Minas did the right crimes in the 19th century to earn their place in the fortunate category of tribes; Gujars somehow fell through the cracks of history. This is no justice; it is sheer chance.
    The Gujjars of Rajasthan are predominantly rural, pastoral and semi agriculturist community whose traditional and primary occupation is selling milk and milk products. They rear mainly cows, buffalo, goats and sheep. Gujar children start working in their lands and attend to milk animals by the age of s 12 years instead of attending school for further studies.
    All spheres of life of Gujjars in Rajasthan exhibits primitive traits be it marriage pattern, social organization, culture, economy, medicinal system, religion, customs, traditions, dresses, ornaments, dwellings, food, domestic effects, education, health etc. Their customs and traditions are in crude form. They follow simple pre machine economy. They have unsophisticated rituals and social customs. There are no signs of advancement or impact of modern life in most of the villages inhabited by Gujjars.The Gujars lead a technologically simple life in close harmony with its natural environment.
    In Gujars child marriage, polyandry, naata pratha(widow marriage), aata-saata are very common. They also organize large scale ‘mritu-bhoj’ or ‘nukta’. Their most of the disputes are settled by their caste council or nyat punchayat. Their agriculture is of inferior technology with ancient tools. Even the animal husbandry practices are very basic. They generally do not believe in modern medicinal system. Instead they believe in ‘jhaad-phoonk’ by the ‘gothiya’ and rituals of lok-devtas. Their literacy rate is very low. Their attitude towards formal education is not positive. Accordingly Gujar continue to be a deprived and under developed lot of the society who is still living in nearly primitive stage and is cut off from the mainstream civilization.
    The Gujar and the Meena community of Rajasthan share most of the physical, geographical, social and cultural characteristics. The only difference is that Meenas are distributed in the plain fertile area and are traditionally good agriculturist whereas Gujar inhabit the hilly, forested and daang area, cut off from the main stream and thriving mainly on animal husbandry. The traditional occupation followed by Gujars is pastoralism, which make them even more eligible to be classified as a scheduled tribe. Their social customs, culture and distinctive life style is nearly primitive. The Gujjars are very backward socially, economically and educationally. Most of them are illiterate and uncivilized even after 60 years of independence. Their representation in higher studies, professional courses and Government jobs is negligible.
    It is worthwhile to note here that at a symposium held in August, 2005 on the proposed bill recognizing tribals rights on forest lands one of the participant Sh Goverdhan Rathore, Executive Director, Prakritik Society, Sherpur-khiljipur, Sawai-madhopur in his paper titled ‘Tigers and Tribes’ mentioned the condition of Gujars inhabiting the National park: “When I first came to Ranthambhore in 1971 with my father. (…) Any other land that was left was over-grazed by cattle belonging to the Gujar tribe who lived in the park. (…)To the outside world, the Gujar tribe lived an idyllic life. No electricity, no access to modern medicine. Mortality of every kind was high; population growth was high as was child marriage and having many children was the norm .Yet it seemed idyllic because they lived a frugal existence, living off the land, thriving on animal husbandry and subsistence farming . There is a common joke about their simplicity –once a Gujar from the villages of Ranthambhore caught a train and took his shoes off when he boarded the train. He was surprised not to find them at the next station. It is this simplicity that makes it possible for everyone to exploit these people. The Gujars are not traditionally agricultural tribe, so the little agriculture they did was poorly managed and yielded a below average crop. Animal husbandry was the mainstay of their income. The need to sell milk forced them to interact with traders in town. Being a simple, illiterate tribe they were invariably cheated by the traders. Being totally illiterate meant that even their animal rearing practices were very basic and as such could never really achieve the true potential of the business itself. As their own population grew they need more land and more cattle to meet even their basic survival needs.
    In 1976, with the park having come under Project Tiger, a resettlement programme was a launched and 13 village convinced to relocate. There is no doubt in my mind that had the resettlement of the Gujar tribe not taken place, the tiger and its habitat would by now have disappeared as it has in the neighboring Sawai Mansingh and Karauli Tiger Reserves. We completely disagree with the argument that local tribes will better manage the protected areas only because they are tribals. Before we hand over protected areas to tribal people we need to ask ourselves: How do we describe tribals and what is tribal life? True, tribal cultures existed for centuries in harmony with their local environment because they continued to live primitive lives that had their own natural checks and balances. Poor medical care meant that population growth was always kept in check by nature which would intervene in the form of plagues and diseases. Life expectancy was low. Child marriage, multiple births, witchcraft, polygamy and so on, was the norm. Education, immunization, birth control, modern medicine, electricity and other benefits of modern development never reached them. Once the modern world touches tribal life, the entire natural balance of tribal culture is destroyed and with it the sustainability of tribal culture vanishes.”
    In the cover story ‘Survival at stake’ of national magazine ‘Frontline’ volume 23-issue 26:: Dec.30,2006 to Jan.12,2007from the publishers of The Hindu daily on the forest rights legislation, a report on the Gujars inhabited in the core area of Sariska Tiger Reserve titled as Nature vs. people by T.K.Rajlakshmi was published: “Ever since the disappearance of the tiger population from Sariska, almost all the forest-dwelling Gujar families have come under pressure to move out of the forest. Eleven villages in the reserve area will be relocated in order to restore the tiger habitat. There are 28 villages within Sariska’s 881-square kilometer area and nearly 200 more in the general vicinity of the reserve.
    The pastoral community has lived in the reserve for generations, content with its frugal lifestyle. The Gujars are now being accused of indiscriminate felling of trees and depletion of forest land, and of indulging in commercial activity by selling milk and milk products outside the reserve.Radha denies her people are making money by selling thickened milk or maava to the towns people.” If that was the case, why would I live in this mud house?” she asks. If the Gujars have benefited from tiger poaching, as is insinuated, there is no evidence of the resulting property in their homes. A vegetarian community, they do not hunt. Two successive drought years wreaked havoc on the ecology of the reserve. Much of the Gujar livestock perished in that period. Contrary to reports that each family has hundred buffalos, not more then 3 or 4 buffalos per family were visible.
    Some forest officials and wildlife experts argue that the relocation package for the Gujars is reasonable. The package includes six bighas (2.2 acres or .96 hectares) of un irrigated land or 3 bighas of irrigated land, the cost of shifting from the reserve and Rs 40,000 for the construction of a homestead on the land. The Gujars feel the package is not sufficient as they would have no excess to grazing land and their entire lifestyle would change. “If they make it difficult for us to live here, then we will have to go. But it is not right. We had nothing to do with the disappearance of the tiger. Our people have lived with the tiger for centuries”. Jubber said.
    The Gujars, he (Rajesh Gupta, Deputy Conservator of Forests and Deputy Field Director of Project Tiger) said, were attached to the land but they needed to realize that they were under great hardship, their children were malnourished and they were deprived of education facilities. The wild life act of India did not permit the construction of pucca house or buildings in the vicinity of the forest. The Gujars have not availed themselves of electricity supplies too as their homesteads are in the core area.”
    The Gujars of Rajasthan in general are perceived by other castes as a group involved in small theft of cattle, foodgrains and things of daily life. In areas like Sawai madhopur, Dholpur and Karauli districts most of the ‘Dacoits ‘belong to Gujar community due to various socio-economic and geographical characteristics. Similar situation is found in Bharatpur, Alwar and Harauti region. It is a general folk-say in Rajasthan:
    “Mina, Gujar, Kanjar, Kutta,Billi,Bunder, Ye chhe Jaat na hooti, To khol kivadia soti” (If the six castes i.e. Mina, Gujar, Kanjar and dog, cat and monkey were not there in the universe, she would have slept by opening doors i.e. without any fear).
    In another folk say of Rajasthan, the similarity in lifestyle of Gujars and Kanjars has been shown:
    “Gujar, Kanjar Ek Mata, Aage Revad laer Kuta”

    The meaning of the above is Gujars and Kanjars are of the same type. Gujar always have its herd (revad) with him whereas a Kanjar is always seen with a dog.

    These are some other proverbs or folk say about Gujars mentioned by Herbert Risley in his book’The People of India’ which show their social backwardness and perception of other communities about Gujars:

    “When you see a Gujar hammer him.” “You can not tame a hare, or make a friend of a Gujars”

    “When all other castes are dead make friends with a Gujar”
    “It will remain waste unless a Gujar takes it (said or poor land)” “A Gujar’s daughter is a box of gold”. (The bride price is high among Gujars). “A Dom made friends with a Gujar; the Gujar looted his house.“Sense for a Gujar; a sheath for a harrow (two impossible)
    These proverbs reflect the perception of other mainstream civilized communities about Gujars. By putting Gujars with notorious and nomadic community like ‘Kanjar’ and untouchable, scavenger community like ‘ Dom’ who were at the lowest level of the social hierarchy, one can easily judge the social status of Gujars. No upper Hindu caste has been put or linked in any way, even in proverbs, with the lower castes like ‘Kanjar’ and ‘Dom’. Both these communities (Kanjar and Dom) were given Scheduled Caste status after independence.
    The cultural traits, customs and traditions and the distinctive lifestyle of Gujars of Rajasthan exhibit their social backwardness. One may easily notice a naked Gujar women-taking bath in the open at well. Their overall standard of living is very low. It is relevant to mention here that in a report of ‘Daang’ area published in ‘India Today’ magazine dtd 5th Sept. 2001, the social backwardness of Gujars has been reported which says that in the long tract of approx 1000 kilometer of Daang which include Dholpur, Karauli, Sawai-madhopur and Bharatpur districts, the whole institution of marriage and family has been distorted and corrupted mainly due to polyandry and other socio-economic reasons.
    Educational Backwardness: Most Gujar children are involved with their parents in animal husbandry and/or subsistence agriculture. Gujars rank lowest among all the major castes/tribes of Rajasthan in terms of literacy, education in female in particular and higher “professional degree courses in general. The Gujars avoid educating the girls in general because it becomes difficult for the parents to find a suitable match. There are very few educated and Service class Gujar youth at any given period available for marriage .The attitude of Gujars todards formal education is that education makes their boys defiant and insolent and alienates them from the rest of the society. Further the practise of child marriage that is wide spread among Gujars of Rajasthan discourages the boys for further studies. Instead they prefer to earn their livlihood for the new family. Kind attention is also invited to the chapter IX ‘Literacy’ of Census Report of Rajputana, 1931, page No 99, where a table showing literates per 1000 in males and females among 18 major Castes has been given. In this table, Gujars (8 and nil) are at the 14th position i.e. just above the Rebari(6 and nil), Meo(5 and nil), Chamar(4 and nil) and Bhil(1 and nil). In this table, the Gujars are equivalent to Grassia, a Scheduled Tribe, (8 and nil) in the literacy rate but notably they are at lower level from Mina (10 and nil) and Bhangi(11 and 4) .Besides the Gujars are far below then the Other Bacward Classes viz. Kumhar, Khati, Yadav Jats etc.

    The representation of Gujars in higher education can be examined by counting number of students belonging to Gujar community studying at University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and in its colleges at Jaipur. The picture that emerges is really shocking: There are only 10-15 students in post graduation courses of university. Further there are only 5 students in Maharaja College. There are only 10-15 students in Rajasthan College and Commerce College.(Note: Jaipur is located almost centrally to the areas, which are having majority of Gujar population). The situation of girls is even worse. There are hardly 8-10 girls in the Maharani College of the university out of approx.4500.
    The share of Gujars in 1st and 2nd grade services of state and central Government in Rajasthan is almost ‘NIL’ considering their population size i.e. approx. 35 lakhs. It is lower then any caste in Rajasthan. The table given below shows representation of Gujars in 1st grade state services after 60 years of independence:

    Sr.No Name of Post Total no of Gujars(Direct recruits)
    1. Raj.Administration Service 05
    2. Raj.Police Service Nil
    3. Raj.Accounts Service Nil
    4. Raj.Traffic Service Nil
    5. Raj. Comm.tax Service 01
    6. Raj.Co-operative Service 02
    7. Raj. Tourism Service Nil;
    8. Raj.Jail Service Nil
    9. Raj. Industry Service Nil
    10. . Raj.Forest Service 01

    The representation of Gujars of Rajasthan in other Services is as follows:

    Sr.No Name of Post Total no of Gujars
    College Lecturers 20
    Professors 04
    Doctors 08
    Engineers 05
    Bank P.O 04
    Insurance(AAO) 02

    The picture is more or less similar in all the Government departments. What they have achieved in 60 years from the system is few posts of fourth classes in some departments, sepoys in army from some specific regions of Dausa and Karauli and few posts of third grade school teachers.
    The total representation of Gujars in Central Civil Services recruited through UPSC is 5 out of which 2 have been recruited before implementation of Mandal Commission’s Report. There is only one IAS from the Gujar community of Rajasthan in 60 years. There is nil representation of Gujars of Rajasthan in All India Services like Indian Police Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Forest Service etc. after 60 years of independence. There is not a single Judge in the High Court/Supreme Court from the Gujar community. There are only two Gujars in Rajasthan Judicial Services. The total number of Gujars who have taken MBBS and Engineering degree in 60 years is not more then 30.There are very few Gujars from Rajasthan who have done professional courses like chartered accountant and management (MBA).
    Economic Backwardness: As per Census of India, 1931 for Rajputana Agency in chapter XII Race, Tribe and Caste, the following introductory remarks have been given: “Gujars-The 526,791 Gujars are chiefly found in the eastern part of the Agency (Alwar, Bharatpur, Karauli, Jaipur, Kotah, Bundi”Mewar). Though herdsmen by tradition, they are also extensively engage in agriculture but not, perhaps, with the same degree of skill and patience as Jats and Ahirs.” The dominant form of sustenance among the Gujars was pastoralism. Nonetheless Gujars response to situations was different as per their ecological surrounding and situations. There was subtle movement of the Gujars towards sedentarisation. This process of sedentarisation of the Gujars continued unabated throughout the medieval period. The commercialization of agriculture, increase in the extent of cultivation and shrinking of grazing grounds and forests were the crucial factors behind this transformation. However, even once they sedentarised to a certain extent, their preference to keep animal husbandry as their main occupation and semi nomadic character, continued to remain an important socio-economic feature of their social system.
    The Gujars are not traditionally agricultural tribe, so the little agriculture they do is poorly managed and yield a below average crop. The Gujars of Rajasthan are marginal farmers having very small land holdings i.e. 1 to 1.5 acre per family. They follow traditional farming practices with inferior technology. Except a few areas like Bharatpur, they have less fertile land. They do not have proper irrigation facility and mainly depend on seasonal rains. Animal husbandry is the mainstay of their income. The need to sell milk forces them to interact with traders in town. Being a simple, illiterate tribe they are invariably cheated by the traders. Being totally illiterate meant that even their animal rearing practices are very basic and as such could never really achieve the true potential of the business itself.
    The Gujars of Rajasthan also rear herd of goat and sheep which are known as revad .The herd at night is kept in a surrounding prepared by dry vegetation (bada) and wood. At least one or two members of the family are engaged in looking after the herd that stay with the herd all the time. Gujars have intimate social relationship with their livestock. They consider their animals as fellow creatures and essential partner in the struggle for life. They explain illness amongst livestock due to evil forces or the violation of taboo. In such a situation Gujars take help of the Gothiya or the Bhomiya after he has induced a state of trance.
    There is hardly any shop of any kind owned by a person belonging to Gujar community in the market of most of the towns which are surrounded by thick population of rural Gujars. This shows that their representation in trade and commerce is also ‘Nil’.
    Conclusion: The Gujar and the Meena community share most of the characteristics. They are inhabited in the same geographical area; by and large follow same marriage patterns, folk dance and songs, customs, culture, life style etc. The only difference is that Meena are distributed in the plain fertile area and are traditionally good agriculturist whereas Gujar inhabit the hilly, forested and daang area, cut off from the main stream and thriving mainly on animal husbandry. The traditional occupation followed by Gujars is pastoralism, which make them even more eligible to be classified as a scheduled tribe. Their social customs, culture and distinctive life style is nearly primitive. The Gujars are very backward socially, economically and educationally. Most of them are illiterate and uncivilized even after 60 years of independence. There representation in higher studies, professional courses and Government jobs is negligible.
    Accordingly it will be justice, though delayed, if the genuine claim of the Gujar community for inclusion in the scheduled tribe list of Rajasthan is considered symphethetically and positively.
    Referances / Sources:1. The book titled ‘Tribal India’ by Nadeem Hasnain.2. “Gojri and its relation with Rajasthani” An article written by J.C.Sharma in ‘Language in
    India’ Volume 2:2, 2 Aprail, 20023. “Writing Gojri” A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the University Of North Dakota.4. ‘Image of the Barbarian’ 7th chapter of the book titled ‘Ancient Indian Social History-Some Interpretations’by Romila Thaper.5. The book titled ‘Against History against State’ by Shail Mayaram.6. ‘Genetics of Castes and Tribes of India’ A Study report by M.K.Bhasin, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi.7. A Research study report on ‘Migrant tribal woman’ submitted to Planning Commission, Govt of India.8.Research studies conducted by Dr.R.S.Balgir, Deputy Director ” Head, Devision of Human Genetics, Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneshwar.9.Article ‘Historical neglect’ published in national daily Hindustan Times’by Shail Mayaram, Professor ” Senior fellow, CSDS. 10.Article ‘Caste, Tribe and the politics of reservation’published in national daily Hindu by Shail Mayaram, Professor ” Senior Fello, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies,
    New Delhi.11.The book titled ‘Dishnoured by History: Criminal Tribes ” British Colonial Policy by Dr Radhakrishna and a report on the book in the issue of national daily Hindi dtd. July 16, 2000.12.The book titled ‘Branded by Law: Looking at India, s Denotofied Tribes by Dilip D’Souza and a report on the book in the issue of national magazine ‘Frontline dtd. December 07-20,2002.13.The Scheduled Tribes’ People of
    India’ National Series –Vol.iii,Anthropological Survey of
    India by K.S.Singh.14. 27th Report of Standing Committee On Labour and Welfare (2002) on The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Second Amendment) Bill, 200215. A report namely ‘Now Pahari community…..published in national daily ‘Hindu’on dtd June 06, 2007. 16. The book titled ‘People of India’State Series-Rajasthan, Anhropological Survey of
    India by K.S.Singh.17. The book titled ‘Tribes ” Castes of North-western India’by William Crooke.18. The legend of Devnarayan and phad tradition by http://www.ignca.gov.in19. Study report ‘Tigers and Tribes’ submitted in the symposium held in August, 2005 on the bill ‘Tribal Rights on
    Forest land’.20. A report ‘Nature vs. people’ published in Cover story ‘Survival at stake’of national magazine ‘Frontline’on the forest rights legislation.21. The book titled ‘People of India’ by Herbert Risley.22. Issue of national magazine ‘India Today’ dtd 5th Sept.2001. 23. Census of
    India, 1931 for Rajputana Agency, Chapter XII-Race,Tribe and Caste.24. Imperial Gazetteer of
    India-Provincial series-Rajputana vol. 11, page 325; vol.21, page 114, vol 17 page 314.25. The book titled “Growth of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in Medieval India”, by Dr. K.S.Lal, Aditya Prakashan,
    New Delhi, 1995.26. The book titled “JATS ” GUJARS”, 1899, by British writer A.H.Bingley.27. Various reports on the Census of British India from 1881 to 1901.

  7. Vikram Chaudhry - March 15, 2008

    This is answer to all writers of this blog and to historians, they do factless talk with their individual limited capability. They may not decide the past or future of any community.

    Nobody should ignore the strength of 10 crores trustworthy & honest Gurjar people in india [ 10.3 % of Indian community).

    Gurjar caste is habitual to face these type of conspiracies. But in this developed india they have also a right to live a best life. Gurjars are known for their hard work, warrior nature, trustworthy and honesty.

    The communities and people who did nothing for india in oast or in present, they cannt write anything to those who lost everything even identity for India.

    This is another conspiracy by the todays historians and brtish historian against a powerful, trustworthy and honest gurjar caste. This is all time proved in the world that British has wrote the good history only to those who supported them. The real fighters who have contributed and sacrifice their life and everything to save india are still living in dark. But the people who enjoyed at the Mughal era and in brtish Rule, are also enjoying power and rule.

    Gurjars did the first revolt against the british, at meerut region there was 6 Riyasat of gurjars, they fought with thier army against the british and local villagers supported them .....The first Martyrs of 1857 was Dhan Singh Kotwal, it is recorded in the Ghazette of meerut at collectrate by the british themselves, But who bother the sacrifice of Gurjars the whole credit was given by historians to Mangal Pandey. Gurjars faced the wrong manupulation by the historians.
    Gurjars are spread from Saharanpur to Delhi to Alwar Azmar to Chandigarh to Kashmir to Gurjarat to Maharastra to MadhyaPradesh.

    There are more than 50 place/cities/State in the world in the name Gurjar Caste.
    Why it is not changed ? The answer , b'coz of its greates sacrifice dominancy nature.

    But the fact is that Gurjar caste always rise from the scratch and proved themselves a good warrior and honest people.

    The historians write everything wrong for gurjars, they never covered the real stories , that in army majority of gurjars serving in indian army, as its thier origin and nature to fight for their country. Thats why, in history no Gurjar ruler did comprimise with intruders and paid everthing to save Bharat.

    The origins of the Gurjars are uncertain.[1]. The Gurjara clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gujjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites (“White Huns”).[2] D. B. Bhandarkar (1875-1950) believed that Gujars came into India with the Hunas, and the name of the tribe was sanskritized to “Gurjara”.[3] He also believed that several places in Central Asia, such as “Gurjistan”, are named after the Gujars and that the reminiscences of Gujar migration is preserved in these names.[3] General Cunningham identified the Gujjars with Yuezhi or Tocharians.[4]

    In the past, Gujjars have also been hypothesized to be descended from the nomadic Khazar tribes, although the history of Khazars shows an entirely different politico-culture ethos[5] This argument is chiefly based on the assumption that the word “Gujjar” is derived from the word “Khazar”; the Indo-Aryan languages lacked the sounds “kh” and “z”, converting them respectively into “g” and “j”.[6] In Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, the British civil servant James M. Campbell identified Gujars with Khazars.

    Some Gujjars also claim that the Gujjar caste is related to the Chechens and the Georgians, and argue that Georgia was traditionally called “Gujaristan” (actually Gorjestan).[7][8] Some of them also claim that Germans are Gujjars.[7] However, there is no evidence for such claims. The word “Georgia” derived from the Arabic and Persian word Gurj, and not Gujjar or Gurjar.[9][10]

    Gujjar rulers

    The Gurjara-Pratihara kingdom and other contemporary kingdoms.According to some historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (or Srimal) was established by the Gujjars. A minor kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom.[11] In 640-41 CE, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hieun Tsang) described the kingdoms of Su-la-cha (identified with Saurashtra) and Kiu-che-lo (identified with Gurjara) in his writings. He stated that the Gurjaras ruled a rich and populous kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (Pilo-mo-lo).[12] According to his expositor, M. Vivien de St. Martin, Su-la-cha represents the modern Gujarat, and Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara), “the country of the Gujars”, represents the region between between Anhilwara and the Indus River.[13]

    Vincent Smith believed that the Pratihara dynasty, which ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries, and has been mentioned as “Gurjara-Pratiharas” in an inscription, was certainly of Gurjara origin. Smith also stated that there is possibility of other Agnikula Rajput clans being of same origin.[14] Dr. K. Jamanadas also states that the Pratihara clan of Rajputs descended from the Gujjars, and this “raises a strong presumption that the other Rajput clans also are the descendants from the Gurjaras or the allied foreign immigrants”.[15] D. B. Bhandarkar also believed that Pratiharas were a clan of Gujjars.[3] In his book The Glory that was Gujardesh (1943), Gurjar writer K. M. Munshi stated that the Pratiharas, the Paramaras and the Solankis were imperial Gujjars.

    However, some other historians believe that although some sections of the Pratiharas (eg. the one to which Mathanadeva belonged) were Gujjars by caste, the imperial Pratiharas of Kannauj were not Gujjars and there was no Gurjara empire in Northern India.[16][17] H. A. Rose and Denzil Ibbetson stated that there is no conclusive proof that the Agnikula Rajput clans are of Gurjara origin; they believed that there is possibility of the indigenous tribes adopting Gurjara names, when their founders were enfiefed by Gurjara rulers.[14]

    Over the years, the Gurjars were assimilated mainly into the castes of Kshatriya varna, although some Gurjar groups (such as Gaur Gurjars of central India) are classified as Brahmins. During the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, many of the Gurjar Hindus converted to Islam.[18]

    British rule
    In the eighteenth century, several Gujjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla Nawab Najib-ul-Daula, Dargahi Singh, the Gujjar chieftain of Dadri possessed 133 villages at a fixed revenue of Rs. 29,000.[19] A fort at Parlchhatgarh in Meerut District, also known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gujjar Raja Nain Singh.[20] According to a legend, the fort was built by Parikshita and restored by Nain Singh in the eighteenth century. The fort The fort was dismantled in 1857, to be used as a police station.[21]

    The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that throughout the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Gujars and Musalman (Muslim) Rajputs proved the “most irreconcilable enemies” of the British in the Bulandshahr area.[22] A band of rebellious Gujjars ransacked Bulandshahr after a revolt by the 9th Native Infantry on May 21, 1857. The British officers initially left for Meerut but later sent a small force to retake the town. The British forces were able to retake the town with the help of Dehra Gurkhas, but the Gujars rose again after the Gurkhas marched off to assist General Wilson’s column in another area. Under the leadership of Walidad Khan of Malagarh, the British garrison was driven out the district. Walidad Khan held Bulandshahr from July to September, until he was expelled after an engagement with Colonel Greathed’s flying column. On October 4, the Bulandshahr District was regularly occupied by the British Colonel Farquhar and measures of repression were adopted against the armed Gujars.

    During the revolt of 1857, the Muslim Gujars in the villages of the Ludhiana District showed dissent to the British authorities.[23] The British interests in Gangoh city of Saharanpur District were threatened by the rebel Gujars under the self-styled Raja Fathua. These Gujars rebels were defeated by the British forces under H. D. Robertson and Lieutenant Boisragon, in June 1857.[24] The Gujars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gujars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoys. According to British records, the Gujars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies.[25][26] In Delhi, the Metcalfe House was sacked by the Gujjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building.[27] The British records claim that the Gujars carried out several robberies. Twenty Gujars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram for committing dacoities in July 1857.[25] In September 1857, the British were able to enliist the support of many Jats and Gujars at Meerut.

    The British classified the Gujjars (and around 150 other Indian communities) as “criminal tribe” through the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871 (later repealed by the Government of independent India in 1952).[28] Some believe that the British classified the nomadic tribes as “criminal tribes” because they considered these tribes to be prone to criminality in the absence of legitimate means of livelihood, and also because of their participation in the revolt of 1857.[29] The Imperial Gazetteer of India stated that the Gujars were impoverished due to their “lawlessness in the Mutiny”.[30], and that the Gujars in Delhi had a “bad reputation as thieves”.[31]

    During the World War II, several Gujjars served in the British Indian army. Kamal Ram, a Gujjar sepoy, was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry.

    Demographics
    Gujjars are mainly concentrated in the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Himalayan region, and eastern parts of Afghanistan, although the Gujjar diaspora is found in other places as well. A majority of Gujjars follow Hinduism and Islam, though small Gujjar communities following other religions exist.

    Gujari (or Gojri), classified under Rajasthani[32], has traditionally been the primary language of the Gujjars. But, Gujjars living in different areas speak several other languages including Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Pahari languages (such as Dogri and Kangri), Pashto language, Dardic languages (such as Kashmiri and Khowar), and Balti.

    Gujjars in India
    In India, Gujjar populations are found mainly in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, northern Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The semi-nomadic Gujjar groups are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and north-western Uttar Pradesh.[33] The name for the state of Gujarat has derived from “Gurjar”.

    Gujjars in North India are now considered as a vote bank by some political parties.[34][35]. Rajesh Pilot was a major Gujjar leader in North India. The Gujjars were classified as a Scheduled Tribe in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir, and as Other Backward Class in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

    Delhi
    The mainly gujjars are found in delhi inculde [Tanwar] [8 Villages], [ambavata](4 villages), [dedha](24 villages),[basoya](6 villages),[vidhudi],[rexwal]

    Haryana
    The main gotras of Gurjars found in the Faridabad District of Haryana include Bhadana (14 villages), Nagar (20 villages), Baisla (10 village), Phagna(1 Village) and Poswal (1 village). The Bhadana gotra in Faridabad District launched an anti-dowry campaign in 2002. The community set elaborate guidelines for solemnizing marriages and holding other functions.[36] In a mahapanchayat (“the great panchayat”), the Gujjar community decided that those who sought dowry would be excommunicated from the society.[37] Brigadier Hem Chan Nagar, born in village Tigaon in Ballabhgarh Tehsil of Faridabad district was the first brigadier among the Gurjar Community.[citation needed]

    Jammu and Kashmir
    In Jammu and Kashmir, the concentration of Gujjars is observed in the districts of Rajouri and Poonch, followed by, Ananatnag, Udhampur and Doda districts.[38] It is believed that Gujjars migrated to Jammu and Kashmir from Gujarat (via Rajasthan) and Hazara district of NWFP.[39] Another group called Bakarwal (or Bakerwal or Dhangar) belongs to the same ethnic stock as the Gujjars, and inter-marriages freely take place among them.

    The Gujjars and the Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir were notified as the Scheduled Tribes vide the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Act, 1991.[38] According to the 2001 Census of India, Gujjar is the most populous scheduled tribe in J&K, having a population of 763,806. Around 99.3 per cent population of Gujjar and Bakarwal in J&K follow Islam.[38]

    In 2002, some Gujjars and Bakarwals in J&K demanded a separate state (Gujaristan) for Gujjar and Bakerwal communities, under the banner of India Gujjar Parishad.[40]

    Van Gujjars
    The Van Gujjars (“forest Gujjars”) are found in the Shivalik hills area of North India. The Van Gujjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotras.[41] They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance. In the winter season, the Van Gujjars migrate with their herds to the Shiwalik foothills, and in summer, they migrate to pastures high up in the mountains. The Van Gujjars have had conflicts with the forest authorities, who prohibited human and livestock populations inside a reserved park, and blamed the Van Gujjar community for poaching and timber smuggling[41]. After the creation of the Rajaji National Park (RNP), the Van Gujjars in Deharadun were asked to shift to a resettlement colony at Pathari near Hardwar. In 1992, when the Van Gujjars returned to the foothills, the RNP authorities tried to block them from the park area. The community fought back and finally the forsest authorities had to relent.[42] Later, a community forest management (CFM) programme aiming to involve the Van Gujjars in forest management was launched.

    Punjab
    Gujjars of punjab are mainly found in Nawanshahr,Hoshiarpur and Anandpur District.In this area, thier villages are In heavy concentration.They are both hindu as well as sikh by religion.Their main profession is agriculture and bussiness.They are called as chaudhary in the area.The last names of the Punjabi Gujjars include Kasana, Khepar, Kataria, Chaudhary, Bjarh, Chauhan, Bhumbla, Chandpuri, Chechi, Meelu, Hans, Bagri, khatana and others. The tradition of buffalo milk in Punjab can be attributed to the nomad Gujjars arriving in the Punjab plains with their live stock. There are old folk songs about Gujjar women selling milk in Punjabi villages and the nomad Gujjars displaying their livestock of buffaloes for sale. There are many Gujjar villages in Punjab (India) and most of these Gujjars are Sikhs. Even now, the nomad Gujjars come from Kashmir and sell their artifacts and livestock in Punjab. These nomad Gujjars are mostly Muslims just like their counterparts in Pakistan.

    [edit] Rajasthan
    In Rajasthan, some members of the Gujjar community resorted to violent protests over the issue of reservation in 2006 and 2007. In September 2006, the Gujjars organized violent protests, after the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) failed to keep its promise of including the community in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) category.[43] In May 2007, during violent protests over the reservation issue, the members of the Gujjar community clashed with the police in Dausa district of Rajasthan, resulting in death of fourteen people (including two policemen).[44] Subsequently, the Gujjars protested violently, under various groups including the Gujjar Sangarsh Samiti[45], Gujjar Mahasabha[46] and the Gujjar Action Committee[47] The protestors blocked roads and set fire to two police stations and some vehicles.[48] Presently, the Gurjars in Rajasthan are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).[49].

    On June 05, 2007 the Gujjar rioted over their desire to be added to the governments of India list of tribes who are given preference in India government job selection as well as placement in the schools sponsored by the states of India. This preference is given under a system designed to help India’s poor and disadvantaged citizens. However, other tribes on the list oppose this request as it would make it harder to obtain the few positions already set aside.[50]

    In December 2007, the Akhil Bhartiya Gujjar Mahasabha (“All-India Gurjar Council”) stated that the community would boycott BJP, which is in power in Rajasthan.[51]

    In early 2000s, the Gujjar community in Rajasthan was also in news for the falling sex ratio, unavailability of brides and the resulting polyandry.[52][53]

    [edit] Uttar Pradesh
    In Uttar Pradesh, the Gurjar populations are found mainly in the western U.P. region i.e. Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bijnor, Moradabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Bulandshahar, and Bareilly. To a fewer extent, they are also found in Rampur, Agra and Bundelkhand. The most common gotras are Adhana, Chaudhry,Mundan, Khubbad, Chhokar, Kalsiyan, Chauhan, Poswal, Rathi, Chechi, Panwar, Bhati, Baisla, Tomar, Kasana, Karhana, Bhadana and Nagar. Generally, the Gurjars in western U.P. and N.C.R. are well-off; their economy depends on agriculture, milk trade and production, and to a minor extent, real estate.

    [edit] Madhya Pradesh
    According to the British records, the Gujjar population in Central India was around 56,000 in 1911. Most of these Gujjars were concentrated in the Nimar and Hoshangabad regions of the Narmada vallery. Most of these were migrants from the Gwalior region, while some of the Gujjars in Nimar area were immigrants from Gujarat.[4] Presently, the Gurjars in Madhya Pradesh are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).[54].

    [edit] Gujarat and Maharashtra
    A few scholars believe that the Leva Kunbis (or Kambis) of Gujarat, a section of the Patidars, are possibly of Gujjar origin.[55][56][57]. However, several others state that the Patidars are Kurmis or Kunbis (Kanbis).[58][59]; the National Commission for Backward Classes of India lists Leva Patidars (or Lewa Petidars) as a sub-caste of Kunbis/Kurmis. Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and Gujjar are included in OBC list in Gujarat but Patidars are not. [60]Most of Patidar associations clearly mention in their history that they are the part of Kurmi Samaj.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67]

    Among Marathas, one of the major clans is called “Gujar”[68]. Prataprao Gujar was the third royal Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) of Maratha ruler Shivaji’s army. Sidhoji Gujar was a notable admiral in Shivaji’s navy.[69] The Khandesh region in Maharashtra has a sizable Gujjar population, the major sub-castes being Dode Gujar, Leva Gujar, Bad Gujar etc.

    A community using Gurjar and Gurjarpadhye as their surnames resides in the coastal Konkan region of Maharashtra, inhabiting Pangre, Hasol, and other villages in Ratnagiri District. Originally bearing the name “Gurjarpadhye”, many now prefer to call themselves Gurjar. The community may have been living in the Konkan region for at least three centuries, although this estimate may be inaccurate. The community is a sub-caste of the larger Karhade Brahmin group[70] and speaks the Marathi language. This community might be a part of the bigger Gujjar community. However, it is difficult to explain how they settled down in the Konkan region and are Brahmins rather than Kshatriyas. Local pandits claim that the Gurjars are essentially a priestly community and that it is only the subcastes that assumed Kshatriya status in order to earn a livelihood in other more practical professions.

    Gujjar are also found in some clans of Kshtriya Dhangar. Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and are included in OBC list in Maharashtra.

    There are also one another separate caste in Maharashtra called as “Reve Gujars” Dode Gujars and Reve Gujars speaks a special kind of language called as “Gujari”.

    [edit] Gujjars in Pakistan
    Gujjars have given their names to several places in Pakistan, including Gujranwala, Gujjar Nallah, Gujar Khan, Gojra and Gujrat. Stephen M. Lyon of University of Kent has written about what he calls “Gujarism”, the act of Gujars seeking out other Gujars to form associations, and consolidate ties with them, based strictly on caste affiliation.[7]

    [edit] Azad Kashmir
    There are many prominent Gujjar families in the Pakistani Kashmir region, in the following places: Dadyal, Mirpur Shehar, Bhalot (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Ddayal), Saliyeh Village (Ddayal), Kund (Dadyal), Kotli (Khoi Ratta, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, Nidi Sohana, Nakyal, Chooroi, Sehnsa), Bagh (Haveli), Muzaffarabad and Neelum District.

  8. satyendra singh - March 17, 2008

    Ateet ke gourav ki jugaali karne ya vartman sharmindgi par chhaati kootne ka vakt nahi hai yah !GURJARO ko apne pichdepan ko door karne tatha bhavishya ko ujjaval banane ke liye lacchedaar bhaashano/baato ki nahi, thos karya-yojana va saaf neeyat se sahi disha me nisvarth bhagirathee prayaso ki jarurat hai……!

    Shikhar choone ki kaamna rakhne vaale samaaj ko kaabil aur niji mahatvakanchaon se alag soch rakhne vaale swayam sevako ki jarurat hoti hai……!

    Dhanush ki pratyancha chadh chuki hai….. yadi aap apne samaaj se prem karte hai to us se chhal nahi kar sakte…..hame apni karnee se ese saabit karna hoga….

    Duniya aage badh rahi hai…samay aa gaya hai ki samaaj ke vartmaan va bhavishya ko gauravshaali banaane ke liye teer ko poori taakat, doordarshita va taiyari se bade lakchya ki oar chooda jaye………

  9. Vikram Chaudhry - May 29, 2008

    I will say one thing to all viewers,

    This si the starting of revolution. Jo chingari ab tak sirf sulag rahi thi, vo aag ban chuki hai, Apne dam par hi gurjar apna adhikar lekar rahenge. Just look to this rajasthan Gurjar Andolan, No political party and politician are backing this Andolan. It is the history. Jo pehle nahi hua vo ab hoga.

    Gurjars will prove their majority in this agitation and in coming Loksabha election. Abhi kuch kehne ka waqt nahi hai.

    Kisi bhi samaj ke height par jane ki limit hoti hai, This is the rule of nature, Koi kitna bada banega. Ab Gurjars ka waqt hai. Shayad har baar Gurjars ko hi sacrifice deni hoti hai, to yahi hi sahi, is baar apne adhikaro ke liye koi bhi sacrifice de jaa rahi hai.

    Delhi mein AC rooms mein politics ki batein karne ki jagah vahan 2.5 Lakh logo ka Junoon dekho, aapki aaknen khool jayengi. Jo cast loyality ke liye jani jaati thi, Us Gurjar ke vishwaas ko kaise sabhi ne toda.

    Gurjars lost thier kingdom from Rajasthan after Great Samrat Mihir Bhoj, of Gurjar Praatihar Dynasty. Now from the same place they are wake up to achieve their old royal status and rights.

    Unfortunately government called that army to kill Gurjars, in which majority of Gurjars officers & soldiers serving.

    Gurjars ka Goravshali itihaas hai , aur yahi aaj sabhi Gurjaron ko prerna de raha hai. Gurjar So gaye the, unhe jagane ke liye is Goravshali bahadur ithihaas ko batana jaroori tha. Jo humse nikle aaj hume hi mitane ko aatur hai.

    The one positive thing is that Gurjar fought against every intruder.

    Gurjar will again prove its own brave history.

    Hot blood is now boiling.

    God helps those who helps themselves.

  10. Dr. Rakesh Rana - July 7, 2008

    nice artical

  11. Ashok Harsana - July 7, 2008

    Hello Satyendra,

    A very gud article. But dont you think a few reports are too much bias to be trusted. On one hand you calim to understand how britishers were hell bent to get rid of gujjars and on the other hand you posted their (britishers) views about Gurjars. And yess, why dont you believe that Gurjars never came from anywhere else. They had been living here as a pastoral tribe since long (thats why Sri Krisna and Raa Pratap were cowhers during their exhile).

    Mahabharata also tells us about Gurjara Kingdom and we get many other instances in ancient epics, edicts and stories like panctantra, Asoka’s rock eddicts and Cult of Krisna.

    Anyways You have a Gud knowledge. (but a little mix of trusting everything what you read is not gud for a true hsitorian)

  12. Ch. Muhammad Ashraf Gujjar - August 1, 2008

    Places Named After Gujar Tribe In Pakistan

    The thousands of places were named after the Gujjars and their sub-tribes in the Sub-Continent during the period they ruled over the South and some part of Central Asia. In these days an interesting discussion is going on as to who the Gujjars or Gurjars are? I am mentioning the name of some places situated in all the four provinces of Pakistan. This do not include the villages named after the Gujjars situated in Jammu & Kashmir, Northern Areas and the Tribal Areas. I will updating the visitors of this site after I complete the data in respect of these areas. I will also try my best some time later to provide the name of villages after the sub-tribes of Gujjars. The following data will help the analysts and historians to draw some befitting and logical conclusion.
    I will be highly obliged if any brethren may add to my knowledge by mentioning such places named after the word Gujar, Gujjar or Gurjar, situated in India or any other part of the world. Kindly forward this despatch to other sites discussing the Gujjar’s dilema.
    Regards

    Ch. Muhammad Ashraf Gujjar,
    m_ashraf777@hotmail.com

    P U N J A B PROVINCE:

    DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT
    THOKH GUJRI

    LAYYAH DISTRICT
    GUJRAT

    MUZAFFARGARH DISTRICT
    GUJARWALA

    RAJANPUR DISTRICT
    KOTLA GOJAR
    GUJAR WALI

    FAISALABAD DISTRICT
    CHAK 217/GB GUJJAR PIND
    CHAK 176/GB PALA GOJRA

    JHANG DISTRICT
    JAT GUJJAR

    TOBA TEK SINGH DISTRICT
    GOJRA TEHSIL

    GUJRANWALA DISTRICT
    KOTLI GUJRAN

    GUJRAT DISTRICT
    GUJARPUR
    DHOK GUJRAN
    GUJJAR KOTLA
    KULEWAL GUJRAN
    KHANPUR GUJRAN

    HAFIZABAD DISTRICT
    GUJRANWALI
    GUJAR KE

    MANDI BAHAUDDIN DISTRICT
    GOJRA

    NAROWAL DISTRICT
    GUJAR WALI
    BHABRA GUJRAN
    BERA GUJRAN
    KHANPUR GUJRAN
    CHHANI GUJRAN
    DEHLA GUJRAN
    PAILA GUJRAN
    GUJAR TOOR
    HAJI PUR GUJRAN
    DARYA GUJRAN
    KOTLI GUJRAN
    BADALA GUJRAN
    NIKI GUJRAN
    JHOMIAN GUJRAN
    GUJRAT
    NADALA GUJRAN
    BALA GUJRAN
    BHERON CHAK GUJRAN
    TEHRA GUJRAN

    SIALKOT DISTRICT
    GUJARKE
    GOJRA
    GUJAR KALLA
    GUJAR GORAYA
    GUJRAL
    GUJRAN WALA

    KASUR DISTRICT
    GURJKE

    LAHORE DISTRICT
    NAWAN PIND GUJRAN
    HANDU GUJAR
    QILA GUJAR SINGH
    WARRA GUJARAN

    OKARA DISTRICT
    GHOUS PUR GUJJRAN

    SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICT
    GUJAR PURA
    MAHMOON GUJAR
    KALA GUJAR
    KOTLI GUJRAN
    RATTA GUJRAN

    VEHARI DISTRICT
    GUJAR

    ATTOCK DISTRICT
    THATTI GUJRAN
    DHOK GUJAR

    CHAKWAL DISTRICT
    BHATTI GUJAR
    MOHRA GUJRAN
    PINDI GUJRAN

    JHELUM DISTRICT
    WARA GUJRAN
    GUJER PUR
    KALA GUJRAN
    THATHI GUJRAN
    GUJJAR
    GUJAR KATARIAN

    RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
    GUJAR KHAN TEHSIL
    GOJRA
    MATUA GUJAR
    DHANGDEW GUJAR MAL
    JAND GUJAR
    GURAH GUJARAN
    PHAMRA GUJRAN
    KALA GUJRAN
    BHANGALI GUJAR
    ARAZI GUJRAL
    DHOK GUJRI
    BHADANA GUJRAN
    DANDI GUJRAN
    KHURAM GUJAR

    MIANWALI DISTRICT
    GUJRAN WALA
    GUJRAT

    KHUSHAB DISTRICT
    GUJRANWALA

    North Western Frontier Province(N. W. F. P.)

    D. I. KHAN DISTRICT
    GUJRAT
    ABBOTTABAD DISTRICT
    MASAH GUJRI
    GUJRI
    BAIN GUJRI
    HARIPUR DISTRICT
    PIND GUJRAN
    MOHRRA GUJAR
    KOHISTAN DISTRICT
    GUJJAR BANDA
    GUJARYBAKE
    GUJAR KHEL
    GUJAR BANDA
    GUJAR BANDA
    MANSEHRA DISTRICT
    GUJRAN
    GUJRA
    GUJRAN DE GAL
    LOWER DIR DISTRICT
    GUJAR KALAI
    GUJAR ABAD
    UPPER DIR DISTRICT
    GUJARA KILI
    GUJAR LALA
    MALA-GUJAR
    MARDAN DISTRICT
    GUJRAT
    GUJAR GARHI
    Mohalla GUJARAN
    Bakhshali
    PESHAWAR DISTRICT
    CHOUHA GUJAR
    MIAN GUJAR

    S I N D PROVINCE

    KARACHI DISTRICT GUJAR CHOWK,
    Manzoor Colony
    Gujjar Nallah

    BADIN DISTRICT
    GUJRI
    LARKANA DISTRICT
    GUJHAR
    SANGHAR DISTRICT
    GUJRO
    GUJHERAN
    GUJHRO
    SUKKUR DISTRICT
    GUJRO

    B A L U C H I S T A N PROVINCE

    AWARAN DISTRICT
    GUJARO
    KHUZDAR DISTRICT
    GUJAAR
    BOLAN DISTRICT
    GUJAR
    PISHIN DISTRICT
    GUJIR
    DERA BUGTI DISTRICT
    GUJRO
    ZHOB DISTRICT
    GURJE ZAI

    ISLAMABAD CAPITAL TERRITORY (I.C.T.)

    KANGOTA GUJRAN
    DERA GUJARAN (SECTOR G-10)
    GOHRRA GUJARAN
    MARRI GUJAR, TALHARR.

  13. Ch. M. Ashraf Gujjar - August 26, 2008

    GUJJARS : A Warrior Tribe Who Inflicted Collosol Loss To The USSR

    GUJJARS : The 2nd Largest Ethinic & Linguistic Entity Of Afghanistan

    By: Ch. M. Ashraf Gujjar,
    m_ashraf777@hotmail.com

    The U.S.A. and her allied countries had propounded the idea of a broad-based Government in Afghanistan, comprising of all the ethnic and linguastic groups. The western countries had false perception about the exact ethnic and linguastic division of Afghanistan. It was mistakenly believed that the Afghnistan is ethnically devided into Pushtoons and Persian speaking Northern alliance. The U.S.A. and its allies, while forming the present Karzai Government in Afghanistan, absolutely ignored the second largest and major ethnic Gujjar community. The Gujjars constitutes to be the 35% of Afghanistan’s total population.
    2. The Gujjar is the largest tribe of the World, which is admittedly recognized to be the major ethnic group in Pakistan, India, Indo-Pak held Jammu & Kashmir, Xing Xiang(China), Tibet, Nepal, Bhuttan, Sakkum, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Georgia and other Central Asian States. The Gujjars can rightly be termed as an International tribe, who are not restricted and confined by the frontiers or borders.
    3. There is much known about the Gujjars dwelling in almost all parts of India and Pakistan. There population in India and Pakistan is 20 & 03-billion respectively. The Sub-Continent and Central Asia was ruled for centuries by the Gujjars, also known as Gurjars. It was during their rule that thousands of places were named after them or their sub-tribes in India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asian States. In Central and South Asia there are also numerous places named after the sub-clans of Gujjars, e.g. Chechania, Chechian, Jhanda Chechi, Kharian, New-Katarian, Panjan Kasana, Noon, Bhadana, Jhand Meelu, etc. etc. I am sure a list of such places, given at the end of this article, will be of great interest to realise that to what extent the Gujjars enjoyed power and influence in the Central & South Asia in the ancient times.
    4. The Gujjars of Afghanistan have always played a very important and significant role in Afghanistan. The Afghanistan is broadly divided into four major ethnic groups, i.e. (1)-Pushtoons 40%, (2)-Gujjars, speaking Gujari and other languages 35%, (3)-Persian speaking 10% and (4)-others 15% approximately. The over whelming and majority population of 14 Provinces of Afghanistan consists of Gujjar tribe, who generally speak Gujjari langauage. In some areas they also speak Pushto or Persian in addition to Gujjari langauage. This language is also spoken by the Gujjars of India and Pakistan. The Gujjarati, Daccani, Rajasthani, Mewati and mewarri, according to some scholars, are the regional names and dialects of Gujjari language. A brief and approximate account of Gujjar population in some of the Afghan-Provinces is given hereunder:-
    i) Kunnarr : This province is situated in the south of Afghanistan and
    in the North of Pakistan. The Gujjar tribe is living with over-whelming majority in this Province. The famous towns and villages of the Gujjars are Narrai, Asmar, Hari Kot, Tashagul, Konigul, Gorin, Inchagal, Samsagal, Karchigal, Bazagal, Batash, Hegal and Asoom, etc.
    ii) Lughman : Its more than 50% population consists of Gujjar tribe.
    There are approximately 45-villages having hundred percent Gujjar population.
    iii) Panjsher : The Gujjars constitutes 40% population of this Province.
    Perkhar and Wersak towns are the famous strong-holds of the Gujjars.
    iv) Badakhshan : The Gujjars constitutes half of the population of this
    Province. The Bajjarr, Chauhan, Bherwal, Jangle, Bhaddana, Kohli, Doei and Bokarra are the famous sub-tribes/clans of Gujjars living in this Province.
    v) Kondos : The ¾ population of this Province consists of Gujjar tribe.
    vi) Farkhar : More than 90% population of this Province belongs to the
    Gujjar community. The Dashtiachi, Namakao, Khestazi and Khefdar, etc. are the famous towns & villages of the Gujjar tribe.
    vii) Mazar Sharif : In this Province over 30% population consists of
    Gujjar community.
    viii) Baglan : In this Province over 40% population belongs to the Gujjar
    caste.
    ix) Aneshkamesh : The 70% population of this Province is consisted of
    Gujjar tribe.
    x) Palol : The Gujjar is a majority tribe of this Province. The Gujjar
    commanders Mr. Ghulam Sakhi Khattana and Mr.Fardol Khatana, the militant leaders of Harkat-e-Islamia Afghanistan also belonged to this Province. They inflicted collosal loss to the enemy during the cold-war.
    xi) Andraf : The Gujjars constitues ¾ population of this Province. The
    Gujjar Generals Moman Bherwal and Mr. Arbab Therwal Malang, the militant Gujjar Commanders of Hizb-e-Islami belonged to this province. These Generals earned lot of name and recognition during the cold-war.
    xii) Taloqan : The Gujjars forms half of the population of the Province.
    Mr. Arbab Hakeem Chechi, the Supreme Gujjar Commander of Hizb-e-Islami also belonged to this Province. He also earned world wide recognition during the cold war.
    xiii) Shabargan : The Gujjars are 1/3 of the total population of this
    Province.

    5. The Gujjars are also living with a prominent sizeable minority in the following Provinces of Afghanistan : -
    i Nangarhar,
    ii Kabul,
    iii Logar,
    iv Qandhar,
    v Gazni,
    vi Kapisa,
    vii Gardez,
    viii Tamroze, and
    ix Harat.
    6. The Gujjars played a leading role in war (Jehad) against the U.S.S.R. since beginning in the year 1979. Mir Afzal Chechi of Kunnarr Province was one of the leading founders to organise and start the war(Jehad) to liberate Afghanistan from the clutches of U.S.S.R., who also sacrificed his life for the sacred cause. Malik Sher Afzal and Malik Qabeel of Kunnarr Province also significantly contributed towards organizing the war and Jehad against the U.S.S.R.
    7. The following militant leaders of various Jahadi organizations, who fought against the U.S.S.R., also belonged to the Gujjar tribe of Afghanistan:-
    i) Dr.M.Abdul Qayyum, Founder, Hizb-e-Islami
    ii) Maulana M.Younas Khalis Quaid, Hizb-e-Islami
    iii) Muhammad Ayub, Amir, Tanzeem Ahl-e-Hadith
    iv) Ghulam Chechi, Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    v) Mauland Akhawandzada Commander Harkat-e-Islami
    vi) Nadir Khan Commander Harkat-e-Islami
    vii) Arbab Mian Gul Chechi Commander Jamaat-e-Islami
    viii) Haji Zardali Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    ix) Haji Daim Khan Commander Tanzeem Ahl-e-Hadith
    x) Musafar Khan Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xi) Maulana Umra Khan Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xii) Haji Badam Khan Commander Mahaz-e-Milli
    xiii) Mir Alam Commander Jamat-e-Islami
    xiv) Malik Sadbar Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xv) Maulana Kaduaali Amir Islami Hizb
    xvi) Mirza Lal Doei Commander Jamat-e-Islami
    xvii) Madir Gujjarwal Commander Harkat-e-Islami
    xviii) Malik Jabeen Chechi Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xix) Malik Shireen Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xx) Malik Maasal Commander Hizb-e-Islami
    xxi) Hazrat Bilal Sher Commander Harkat-e-Islami
    xxii) Malik Gul Sharif Commander Tanzeem Ahl-e-Hadith
    8. The thousands of Gujjar Mujahideens sacrificed their lives while fighting against USSR during the period of cold war. A large number of Gujjars had to migrate to Pakistan and other neighbouring countries during and after the cold-war. The majority of Gujjar migratees were living in Bhai Cheena Camps, Anayat Kaley Camps in Bajorr Agency, Dodaba Camps and Ranrri Camps in Dir district of Pakistan.
    9. The culture, language, customs and traditions of the Gujjars are entirely different than the pushtoon ethnic stock. The Gujjars of Afghanistan speaks Gujjari language, the language that also spoken in most of the areas of India & Pakistan and enjoys representation on a number of state owned Radio and Television channels in both the countries.
    10. It will be worth mentioning that the Pushto speaking population do not belong to one community, tribal or racial group rather they are devided into Shanwaris, Afridis, Safis, Khattaks, Mashwanis and Yousafzais, etc. etc., who are foes and not friends as they keeps fighting with each other, whereas, on the contrary the Gujjars of Afghanistan belongs to one racial and tribal group unlike Pushtoons, who are just a linguistic group.
    11. The over 30-Million Gujjars in Pakistan and 20-Billion Gujjars in India had extended their implied and unconditional support to the notion of forming the broad based Afghan-Government comprising of all the ethnic groups and communities in Afghanistan so to bring the perpetual peace in Afghanistan.
    12. It was expected that the Gujjars being the second largest ethnic and linguistic community certainly was to be considered as a significant constitutent in broad-based government as by ignoring the Gujjars neither any government can function as a representative establishment nor that could be a workable or perpetual solution to the growing problems of Afghanistan. The U.S.A., U.K. and Pakistan Governments should have derived an acceptable formula giving due representation to the Gujjars of Afghanistan.
    13. The worrior & majority Gujjar tribe has not been given any representation while forming the present Afghan Government, the result is obvious, the writ of present Afghan-Government could hardly be established within the radious of only two Kilo meter area and more specifically speaking within the Presidential Compound under the guard and security of Allied forces. They are the brave Gujjars only who can restrict and confine the war-lords into their cloths and can bring the perpetual peace in Afghanistan. These Gujjars of Afghanistan also enjoys the unshaken support of 23-billion Gujjars of Pakistan and India in special and millions of Gujjars settled all over the world in common. Its in the larger interest that Allied Forces, in order to bring the perpetual peace in Afghanistan, may even now draw a strategy to form a true representative Aghan-Government.
    The royal-Gujjars have ruled the South-Central Asia for centuries and it was during their kingdoms that they had named thousands of places. No other tribe can compete the Gujjars on this account. In the wake of recent unrest amongst the Gujjars of Rajisthan in India, which has been termed as the ‘Desert Storm By The Gujjars, an interesting discussion is going on these days as to who the Gujars, Gujjars or Gurjars are? I am mentioning a few name of some places, which will help the historians, anthrapologist and anaylst to ascertain the major and important role played by them in present and past history and the politics of these regions. The visitors of this site are allowed to forward this article to the other web-sites for befitting conclusion about the Gujjars’ history and their role in the present-age :-

    I N D I A :

    P U N J A B PROVINCE :
    AMRITSAR DISTRICT :
    LODHI GUJJAR
    KOTLA GUJARAN
    GUJARPURA
    GUJAR PURA
    FARIDKOT DISTRICT :
    GUJJAR
    FATEHGARH SAHIB DISTRICT :
    RAIPUR GUJJARAN,
    BUD GUJJARAN,
    FIROZPUR DISTRICT :
    BEHAK GUJJARAN,
    BUH GUJJARAN,
    THEH GUJJAR,
    THEH GUJJAR (BEGU),
    GURDASPUR DISTRICT :
    TALWARA GUJJARAN,
    SIMBLI GUJJARAN,
    LAHRI GUJJARAN,
    KOTLI GUJJARAN,
    JHANDA GUJJARAN,
    GUJARAT,
    GUJJAR PUR,
    CHANNI GUJJARAN,
    BHURIAN GUJJARAN,
    AIMAN GUJJARAN,
    HOSHIARPUR DISTRICT :
    GUJJAR PUR,
    GUJJAR,
    GUJAR KATRALA,
    GUJAR BASOYA,
    RAIPUR GUJJARAN,
    JIWANPUR GUJJARAN,
    CHAK GUJJARAN-1,
    CHAK GUJJARAN-2,
    BHULEWAL GUJJARAN,
    BAGEWAL GUJJARAN,
    JALANDHAR DISTRICT :
    RAIPUR GUJJARAN,
    KAPURTHALA DISTRICT :
    MAND GUJJAR PUR,
    GUJJARATTAN,
    LUDHIANA DISTRICT :
    AGWAR GUJJARAN,
    BAUNKAR GUJJARAN,
    BHAINI GUJJARAN,
    FATEHGARH GUJJARAN,
    GUJJARWAL,
    GUJJARWAL BET,
    QUTABEWAL GUJJARAN,
    NAWANSHAHR DISTRICT :
    GUJJAR PUR KHURD,
    GUJJAR PUR KALAN,
    ROPARR DISTRICT :
    BASI GUJJARAN,
    SANGPUR DISTRICT :
    RAMPUR GUJJARAN,
    RAMGARH GUJJARAN,
    GUJJARAN,
    PATIALA DISTRICT :
    BADHOLI GUJJARAN,
    BIR KHERI GUJJARAN,
    DUDHAN GUJJARAN,
    FARID PUR GUJJARAN,
    GUJARHERI,
    KHERI GUJJARAN,
    SASA GUJJARAN,
    MUKTASAR DISTRICT :
    BURA GUJJAR,

    G U J A R A T PROVINCE :
    SURAT DISTRICT :
    GUJJAR PUR,
    MEHSANA DISTRICT :
    GUJJARVADA,

    HIMACHAL PRADESH (H.P.) PROVINCE :
    UNA DISTRICT :
    DHAR GUJJARAN,

    HARYANA PROVINCE :
    AMBALA DISTRICT :
    TALHERI GUJJARAN,
    BHIWANI DISTRICT :
    GUJARANI,
    FARIDABAD DISTRICT :
    KHERI GUJJARAN,
    NAGLA GUJJARAN,
    TIKRI GUJJARAN,
    GURGAON DISTRICT :
    BAR GUJJARAN,
    GUJAR NAGLA,
    MUHAMMADPUR GUJJARAN,
    KAITHAL DISTRICT :
    BUDHANPUR GUJJARAN,
    GARHI GUJJARAN,
    KURUKSHETRA DISTRICT :
    KAKRALA GUJJARAN,
    MAHENDRAGARH DISTRICT :
    GUJJARWAS,
    PANI PAT DISTRICT :
    NUR PUR GUJJARAN,
    SIMLA GUJJARAN,
    BAWANA GUJJARAN,
    REWARI DISTRICT :
    BAWANA GUJJAR,
    GUJAR MAJRI,
    GUJARIWAS,
    LADHUWAS GUJJARAN,
    ROHTAK DISTRICT :
    KHERKA GUJJARAN,
    SONI PAT DISTRICT :
    KHERI GUJJARAN,
    PANCHI GUJJARAN,
    YAMUNA NAGAR DISTRICT :
    GARHI GUJJARAN,
    HAL DARI GUJJARAN,

    P A K I S T A N :

    P U N J A B PROVINCE:

    DERA GAZI KHAN DISTRICT :
    THOKH GUJRI,
    LAYYAH DISTRICT :
    GUJRAT,
    MUZAFARGARH DISTRICT :
    GUJARWALA,
    RAJANPUR DISTRICT :
    KOTLA GUJAR,
    GUJAR WALI,
    FAISALABAD DISTRICT :
    CHAK 217/GB GUJJAR PIND,
    CHAK 176/GB PALA GOJRA,
    JHANG DISTRICT
    JAT GUJJAR,
    TOBA TEK SINGH DISTRICT :
    GUJRA TEHSIL,
    GUJARANWALA DISTRICT :
    GUJARANWALA,
    KOTLI GUJRAN,
    GUJARAT DISTRICT :
    GUJARAT,
    GUJARPUR,
    DHOK GUJRAN,
    GUJJAR KOTLA,
    KULEWAL GUJRAN,
    KHANPUR GUJRAN,
    HAFIZABAD DISTRICT :
    GUJRANWALI,
    GUJAR KE,
    MANDI BAHA UD DIN DISTRICT :
    GUJRA,
    NAROWAL DISTRICT :
    GUJAR WALI,
    BHABRA GUJRAN,
    BERA GUJRAN,
    KHANPUR GUJRAN,
    CHHANI GUJRAN,
    DEHLA GUJRAN,
    PAILA GUJRAN,
    GUJAR TOOR,
    HAJI PUR GUJRAN,
    DARYA GUJRAN,
    KOTLI GUJRAN,
    BADALA GUJRAN,
    NIKI GUJRAN,
    JHOMIAN GUJRAN,
    GUJRAT,
    NADALA GUJRAN,
    BALA GUJRAN,
    BHERON CHAK GUJRAN,
    TEHRA GUJRAN,
    SIALKOT DISTRICT :
    GUJARKE,
    GOJRA,
    GUJAR KALLA,
    GUJAR GORAYA,
    GUJRAL,
    GUJRAN WALA,
    KASUR DISTRICT :
    GUJARKE,
    LAHORE DISTRICT :
    NAWAN PIND GUJRAN,
    HANDU GUJAR,
    QILA GUJAR SINGH,
    WARRA GUJARAN,
    OKARRA DISTRICT :
    GHOUS PUR GUJJRAN,
    SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICT :
    GUJAR PURA,
    MAHMOON GUJAR,
    KALA GUJAR,
    KOTLI GUJRAN,
    RATTA GUJRAN,
    VEHARRI DISTRICT :
    GUJAR,
    ATTOCK DISTRICT :
    THATTI GUJRAN,
    DHOK GUJAR,

    CHAKWAL DISTRICT :
    BHATTI GUJAR,
    MOHRA GUJRAN,
    PINDI GUJRAN,
    JHELUM DISTRICT :
    WARA GUJRAN,
    GUJAR PUR,
    KALA GUJRAN,
    THATHI GUJRAN,
    GUJJAR,
    GUJAR KATARIAN,
    RAWALPINDI DISTRICT :
    GUJAR KHAN TEHSIL,
    GUJRA,
    MATUA GUJAR,
    DHANGDEW GUJAR MAL,
    JAND GUJAR,
    GURAH GUJARAN,
    PHAMRA GUJRAN,
    KALA GUJRAN,
    BHANGALI GUJAR,
    ARAZI GUJRAL,
    DHOK GUJRI,
    BHADANA GUJRAN,
    DANDI GUJRAN,
    KHURAM GUJAR,
    MIANWALI DISTRICT :
    GUJRAN WALA,
    GUJRAT,
    KHUSHAB DISTRICT :
    GUJRANWALA,

    North Western Frontier Province (N. W. F. P.)

    D. I. KHAN DISTRICT :
    GUJRAT,
    ABBOTTABAD DISTRICT :
    MASAH GUJRI,
    GUJRI,
    BAIN GUJRI,
    HARIPUR DISTRICT :
    PIND GUJRAN,
    MOHRRA GUJAR,
    KOHISTAN DISTRICT :
    GUJJAR BANDA,
    GUJARYBAKE,
    GUJAR KHEL,
    GUJAR BANDA,
    GUJAR BANDA,
    MANSEHRA DISTRICT :
    GUJRAN,
    GUJRA,
    GUJRAN DE GAL,
    LOWER DIR DISTRICT :
    GUJAR KALAI,
    GUJAR ABAD,
    UPPER DIR DISTRICT :
    GUJARA KILI,
    GUJAR LALA,
    MALA-GUJAR,
    MARDAN DISTRICT :
    GUJRAT,
    GUJAR GARHI,
    Mohalla GUJARAN
    Bakhshali,
    PESHAWAR DISTRICT :
    CHOUHA GUJAR
    MIAN GUJAR,

    S I N D PROVINCE :

    KARACHI DISTRICT :
    GUJAR CHOWK-
    Manzoor Colony,
    GUJJAR Nullah,
    BADIN DISTRICT :
    GUJRI,
    LARRKANA DISTRICT :
    GUJHAR,
    SANGHARR DISTRICT :
    GUJRO,
    GUJHERAN,
    GUJHRO,
    SUKKUR DISTRICT :
    GUJRO,

    B A L U C H I S T A N PROVINCE :

    AWARAN DISTRICT :
    GUJARO,
    KHUZDAR DISTRICT :
    GUJAAR,
    BOLAN DISTRICT :
    GUJAR,
    PISHIN DISTRICT :
    GUJIR,
    DERA BUGTI DISTRICT :
    GUJRO,
    ZHOB DISTRICT :
    GURJE ZAI,

    ISLAMABAD CAPITAL TERRITORY (I.C.T.) :
    KANGOTA GUJRAN,
    DERA GUJARAN(SECTOR G-10),
    GOHRRA GUJARAN,
    MARRI GUJAR,TALHARR,
    HADWALA GUJJARAN,
    GUJJARAN NA MOHRRA.

    I R A N
    GUJAR This place is situated in Esfahan, Iran, its geographical
    coordinates are 33° 48′ 0″ North, 51° 20′ 0″ East.

    A F G H A N I S T A N
    Gujarabad,
    Gujaristan,
    Gujar pul (Kunnarr)
    Gujar (Fariab), etc.

    G E O R G I A (Central Asia)
    Gurjistan } Persian names ]The place where from the Gujars,
    Gurjiya } of Georgia ]Gurjis or Gurjars migrated to South
    } ]Asia in the ancient times.

    C H E C H A N Y A (Central Asia)
    CHECHANYA This country is named after the Chechi sub-clan or gotra
    of Gujjar/Gurjar Tribe. The following places are also
    named after the Chechi sub-clan in Pakistan and Azad
    Jammu & Kashmir :
    Jhandi Chechi, District Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    Chechian, District Mirpur, A. J & K.

  14. vivek Dhooli - November 27, 2008

    we are THETHHH…
    SUN le Central govt…
    Abhi to kewal ek Rajsthan se awaj uthi to tumhari takhte hil gaye… saare desh ke gurjar agar ek saath saamne aa gaye to sarkaar gurjro ki ban,ne se koi nhi rok payega…

  15. links for 2009-01-09 « The Mustard Seed - January 9, 2009

    [...] Polite Indian | The Rajasthan Story Of Caste Politics. "What is happening in Rajasthan is pretty shameful but not unexpected. The Gurjars have come out on the streets and their demand is that their OBC status be changed to ST. The protests have turned violent and as usual loss of life and public property follows. This includes pelting stone, burning police stations, road blocs and what not. [...]

  16. AP Singh - November 3, 2009

    Tashkent is also named after the Chechi Sub Clan of Gujjars. The Oroginal name of Tasjkent was Chah+Khand, i,e,. the land ruled by Gujjar Chechis.

    I think the Chechi ( Originally from Cherchan, presently called as Chinese Turkestan) were one of the five ruling branches of Gojars ( called Tochars in English and Yuechis in Chinese language).

    The First three ruling branches were:
    1. Kasana ( The Great Kushans, to which clan the Emperor Kanishka belonged).
    2. Khatana, the Rulers of Khotan. ( Present day Yutein in China).
    3. Bokkan, the rulers of Vokkana, the present day Badskhan. Their name appear on Mathura inscriptions also as Vokkana Pati, that means the lords of Bokkana.

    The forth ruling branch must be Chechi and fifth may be Hao-tun, which are called as White Huns and in chinese historical records they are mentioned as a brach of Gujjars ( The yuechis).

    The later ruling clans of Gujjar Pratihar, Gujjar Chauhans, Gujjar Solankis, Gujjar Parmars, The Gujjar Tanwars, The Gujjar Chawras, The Gujjar Guhilots must be the sub branches of these five main branches.

    The Word Rajput appeared only during Mughal period and historians, including Col. Todd. writing these Gujjar clans as Rajputs failed to show the appearance of the Rajput even once before the end of 12th. century.

  17. aryan chaudhary - January 22, 2010

    [[Edited]] Inappropriate language

  18. Deshpremi - June 20, 2011

    I would like to add into whaterver has been written here.
    I find that writer (Mr. Satyendra) has taken lot of pain in providing the examples from the books written by British Authors and has hardly left anything that proves Gurjars a notorious caste. He has also mentioned some folk-sayings to support his claim. I don’t know why he has written all this? Whether all that was required? The Britishers have written good only about the people who were loyal to them and were their prime allies; one can easily understand who had supported them in India! It’s not surprising that they labelled Gurjar and Meenas as criminal Tribes as these were the people who had really made their lives difficult and the Britishers deserved it too. Gujjars, Meenas, Jats and Yadavas had been the ruling castes even before the Rajputs. If we take example of Rajasthan, Meenas were the original rulers of Matsya i.e. Rajasthan and Rajputs came into power by replacing them after 12th Century. Meenas, Rajputs, Gurjars, Jats and Yadavas are totally different from other castes in all aspects. By nature they are fighters and had been serving in the armies and have been maintaing their Martial Race status till-date. Brahmins has been the legitimizers to allot a social status to all castes and this System of Varna had been intentionally kept confusing by them. It’s very unforunate that they have sung songs only on the tune of latest rulers in India just for the sake of getting favors from them so as to spend their livelyhood!!

  19. Gujjar Patel - May 28, 2012

    Hahaha…………fuck this bullshit Srivastava who is very mean and cheap and caste-minded…now i must urge all our fellow Gujjar bros to fuck these all Srivastavas out from the state of Rajasthan…….u madherjaat kayastha…….

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